FUM-N-17627 (Coleoptera). ( A ) New fossil elytra inside dorsal have a look at in advance of sampling, exhibiting a weak steel stand out significantly less than traditional white. ( B ) Higher magnification of the dark number on the urban area demarcated within the ( A ). ( C ) SEM micrograph of one’s external (outer) surface of elytra. Mention hexagonal patterning and you can desiccation breaks. ( D , E ) SEM micrographs of your simple interior epidermis of elytra. Note hexagonally arranged imprints throughout the sedimentary matrix nearby new traditional count. ( F ) SEM micrograph demonstrating a paragraph from mostly amorphous cuticular matrix. Mention slim layers over the additional margin of your elytra (expressed of the an arrow). ( G ) TEM micrograph portraying a vertical section through the elytra. Note largely amorphous interior save yourself getting slim subvertical rifts (white arrows) and four electron-heavy levels one to approach which have leaner, electron-translucent groups (black colored arrow). ( H ) High magnification of the narrow structures (light arrow) and you can epicuticular layering (black colored arrow). ( I ) TEM micrograph showing undulating, electron-lucent fibrillar nanostructures (arrows) throughout the if you don’t mostly homogenous cuticular matrix. ( J , K ) Large magnification of your own structures represented into the ( I ) exhibiting individual filaments. ( L – N ) SEM micrographs portraying remains from putative seta, sensilla otherwise microtrichia-such as for instance have. ( O ) SEM micrograph showing the 2 mineral phase known directly in association with the elytra. The latest fine texturing which have distinctive line of polygonal imprints of the calcium supplements-rich phase (white arrow) is truly distinguishable about more rough-grained iron-rich and you can silicon-rich stage (black colored arrow).
Brand new spectrum throughout the yellow town reveals this new age group regarding combined people ions out-of silica and you will iron oxide
SEM-EDX elemental charts obtained from the fresh new traditional beetle elytra (FUM-N-17627). C, carbon ( purple ); California, calcium supplements ( blue ); Fe, metal ( lime ); Milligrams, magnesium ( cyan ); O, outdoors ( red ); S, sulfur ( yellow ); Si, silicone ( green ).
( A great – D ) Negative ion photographs representing ( An excellent ) silica, ( B ) eumelanin and you may ( C ) organic sulfur, along with ( D ) a keen overlay image where silica is illustrated from inside the purple, eumelanin into the green and organic sulfur inside the blue. ( E ) Negative ion spectra taken from selected ROIs you to match the brand new green (eumelanin) and you will yellow (silica) portion inside ( D ), correspondingly, where the range on green urban area was compared against resource spectra off artificial and natural eumelanin conditions. ( F – We ) Self-confident ion photographs symbolizing ( F ) the brand new mixed silica/iron oxide stage, ( G ) Ca-which has normal complexes and you will ( H ) calcite, and additionally ( I ) an overlay visualize where silica/iron-oxide are depicted from inside the reddish and the California-which has had organics are environmentally friendly and calcite is during blue. ( J ) Positive ion spectra about red, eco-friendly and you will bluish components into the ( We ). The fresh range on the blue town is compared to a reference spectrum of calcite.
ToF-SIMS characterization from traditional beetle elytra (FUM-N-17627)
FUM-N-11263 (Hymenoptera). ( A ) Optical microscopy image of this new traditional wasp having a dark colored thorax and you may head, and you will purple-shaded gut and you will foot displayed within the lateral evaluate. ( B ) High magnification picture exhibiting brown pterostigma (arrow), a wing vein and wing epidermis having numerous microtrichia (arrowheads). ( C ) SEM micrograph out of inferred cuticular fragments in the pterostigma plus broken bristles (arrows). ( D ) Optical microscopy image of this new slim area joining the brand new thorax and you can abdomen, displaying differences in conservation between your ebony-colored matter and reddish-colored ft. ( E ) SEM micrograph of one’s city demarcated in the ( D ) indicating inferred cuticular remains. ( F ) SEM micrograph of one’s ventral region of the gut having carbonaceous areas (arrows) presumably representing relict cuticle.